Creation vs. Evolution
The burial of these organisms also meant the burial of the carbon that they contained, leading to formation of our coal, oil and natural gas deposits. As the rate of C14 formation is independent from the levels of normal carbon, the drop in available C12 would not have reduced the rate of C14 production. Even if the rate of C14 formation had not increased after the Flood, there would have been a fundamental shift in the ratio towards a relatively higher radiocarbon content. The amount of C14 present in the pre-flood environment is also limited by the relatively short time less than years which had elapsed between Creation and the Flood. Even if one is generous and allows for the current rate of C14 production to have ocurred throughout this period, the maximum amount of C14 in existence then is less than a fourth of the amount present today. The last years have seen this effect occur in reverse. Our massive consumption of fossil fuels is releasing the carbon which has been locked up in the Earth’s crust for the last four or five millennia. The effect has been complicated by the addition of manmade radioactive carbon to the biosphere because of nuclear explosions and experimentation. And God said, Let there be a space in the midst of the waters, and let it divide the waters from the waters. And God made the space, and divided the waters which [were] under the space from the waters which [were] above the space:
The way it really is: little-known facts about radiometric dating
The way it really is: Even the way dates are reported e. However, although we can measure many things about a rock, we cannot directly measure its age.
Discover how geologists study the layers in sedimentary rock to establish relative age. Learn how inclusions and unconformities can tell us stories about the geologic past.
Acknowledgements Introduction his document discusses the way radiometric dating and stratigraphic principles are used to establish the conventional geological time scale. It is not about the theory behind radiometric dating methods, it is about their application, and it therefore assumes the reader has some familiarity with the technique already refer to “Other Sources” for more information. As an example of how they are used, radiometric dates from geologically simple, fossiliferous Cretaceous rocks in western North America are compared to the geological time scale.
To get to that point, there is also a historical discussion and description of non-radiometric dating methods. A common form of criticism is to cite geologically complicated situations where the application of radiometric dating is very challenging. These are often characterised as the norm, rather than the exception. I thought it would be useful to present an example where the geology is simple, and unsurprisingly, the method does work well, to show the quality of data that would have to be invalidated before a major revision of the geologic time scale could be accepted by conventional scientists.
Geochronologists do not claim that radiometric dating is foolproof no scientific method is , but it does work reliably for most samples.
How Good Are Those Young-Earth Arguments?
Other than farmers, people hardly think of it except when tending to their lawns, and even when we do turn our attention to the soil, we tend to view it as little more than a place where grass grows and earthworms crawl. Yet the soil is a complex mixture of minerals and organic material, built up over billions of years, and without it, life on this planet would be impossible. It is home to a vast array of species that continually process it, enriching it as they do.
Dr. Hovind (G1): The assumption that the geologic column is a base from which to calibrate the C dates is not wise. a half-life of only years, carbon dating has nothing to do with dating the geological ages! Whether by sloppiness or gross ignorance, Dr. Hovind is confusing the carbon “clock” with other radiometric “clocks.”.
Most of the rocks along the north shore of Tolo Channel and at Bluff Head are the oldest in Hong Kong, formed about million years ago during the Devonian Period. Ma Shi Chau presents the sedimentary rocks formed about million years ago; the rocks are the second oldest rocks in the rock region; Lai Chi Chong showcases various volcanic rocks and sedimentary rocks formed about million years ago. These two geo-sites also show distinctive geological features, such as faults and folds.
Although the geology of Ma Shi Chau and Lai Chi Chong is a bit complicated, they are the ideal destinations for geologists. Home to well-outcropped rocks, the island is an ideal location for studying strata, rock properties, sedimentation features and different geological compositions because here you can find faults and folds as well as deformed and displaced rock mass. The unnamed islet near Yim Tin Tsai, vegetated with dense woodlands, is a popular roosting ground for egrets and herons.
Given such outstanding conservation value, the Ma Shi Chau region was declared a protected Special Area in The Ma Shi Chau nature trail runs along the southeastern shore of the island. By observing the rocks on site and reading trailside interpretation plates, visitors can understand how tombolos and various rocks are formed, as well as natural phenomena like wave erosion, weathering and folding. Geological Information Outcropped strata dating back to the Permian , , to , , years ago are extremely rare and isolated in Hong Kong.
Tolo Harbour Formation is a particularly prominent example. Ma Shi Chau is a representative showcase of this formation. The well-outcropped rocks on the island are composed of mudstone, siltstone and sandstone deformed by folding.
There are lots of ways to guesstimate ages, and geologists knew the earth was old a long time ago and I might add that they were mostly Christian creationist geologists. But they didn’t know how old. Radiometric dating actually allows the measurement of absolute ages, and so it is deadly to the argument that the earth cannot be more than 10, years old. Radiometric methods measure the time elapsed since the particular radiometric clock was reset.
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It is an ancient construction that has baffled researchers ever since its discovery and until today, no one has been able to accurately date the Sphinx, since there are no written records or mentions in the past about it. Now, two Ukrainian researchers have proposed a new provocative theory where the two scientists propose that the Great Sphinx of Egypt is around , years old.
A Revolutionary theory that is backed up by science. The authors of this paper are scientists Manichev Vjacheslav I. According to Manichev and Parkhomenko: Geological approach in connection to other scientific-natural methods permits to answer the question about the relative age of the Sphinx. The conducted visual investigation of the Sphinx allowed the conclusion about the important role of water from large water bodies which partially flooded the monument with formation of wave-cut hollows on its vertical walls.
Genetic resemblance of the compared erosion forms and the geological structure and petrographic composition of sedimentary rock complexes lead to a conclusion that the decisive factor of destruction of the historic monument is the wave energy rather than sand abrasion in Eolian process. Voluminous geological literature confirms the fact of existence of long-living fresh-water lakes in various periods of the Quaternary from the Lower Pleistocene to the Holocene.
These lakes were distributed in the territories adjacent to the Nile. The absolute mark of the upper large erosion hollow of the Sphinx corresponds to the level of water surface which took place in the Early Pleistocene. Manichev and Parkhomenko focus on the deteriorated aspect of the body of the Sphinx, leaving aside the erosive features where the Sphinx is located, which had been studied previously by Schoch.
Ukrainian scholars focused on the undulating terrain of the Sphinx which displays the mysterious pattern. Mainstream scientists offer explanations for this sharp feature and state that it is based on the abrasive effect of the wind and sand, the undulations were formed because the harder layers of rock are better at withstanding the erosions while the softer layers would have been more affected, forming voids.
Radiometric Dating and the Geological Time Scale
Constitutional Convention Sedimentary structures Sedimentary structures are the larger, generally three-dimensional physical features of sedimentary rocks; they are best seen in outcrop or in large hand specimens rather than through a microscope. Sedimentary structures include features like bedding, ripple marks, fossil tracks and trails, and mud cracks.
They conventionally are subdivided into categories based on mode of genesis. Structures that are produced at the same time as the sedimentary rock in which they occur are called primary sedimentary structures.
The London Hammer: An Alleged Out-of-Place Artifact. Background Mr. and Mrs. Max Hahn were hiking along the Red Creek near the small town of London, Texas, in June (or , according to others), when they happened upon a small rock nodule with a piece of wood protruding from it.
Most of the rocks along the north shore of Tolo Channel and at Bluff Head are the oldest in Hong Kong, formed about million years ago during the Devonian Period. Ma Shi Chau presents the sedimentary rocks formed about million years ago; the rocks are the second oldest rocks in the rock region; Lai Chi Chong showcases various volcanic rocks and sedimentary rocks formed about million years ago.
These two geo-sites also show distinctive geological features, such as faults and folds. Although the geology of Ma Shi Chau and Lai Chi Chong is a bit complicated, they are the ideal destinations for geologists. Home to well-outcropped rocks, the island is an ideal location for studying strata, rock properties, sedimentation features and different geological compositions because here you can find faults and folds as well as deformed and displaced rock mass.
The unnamed islet near Yim Tin Tsai, vegetated with dense woodlands, is a popular roosting ground for egrets and herons. Given such outstanding conservation value, the Ma Shi Chau region was declared a protected Special Area in The Ma Shi Chau nature trail runs along the southeastern shore of the island. By observing the rocks on site and reading trailside interpretation plates, visitors can understand how tombolos and various rocks are formed, as well as natural phenomena like wave erosion, weathering and folding.
The Sphinx Of Balochistan: Is It A Man-made, Rock-cut, Architectural Marvel?
Carbon , Radiometric Dating and Index Fossils Carbon dating is used to determine the age of biological artifacts up to 50, years old. This technique is widely used on recent artifacts, but educators and students alike should note that this technique will not work on older fossils like those of the dinosaurs alleged to be millions of years old. This technique is not restricted to bones; it can also be used on cloth, wood and plant fibers.
Carbon dating has been used successfully on the Dead Sea Scrolls, Minoan ruins and tombs of the pharaohs among other things. Carbon is a radioactive isotope of carbon. The half-life of carbon is approximately 5, years.
Relative dating is used to arrange geological events, and the rocks they leave behind, in a sequence. The method of reading the order is called stratigraphy (layers of rock are called strata). Relative dating does not provide actual numerical dates for the rocks.
This article will explain how carbon dating is supposed to work and then show you the serious flaws with this process. It is derived from a transcript of Dr. His videos and materials are not copyrighted. Carbon dating was not invented until When the schools started to teach that the earth is billions of years old, back in , the reasoning was not because of carbon dating. Carbon dating had not even been thought of yet.
Billions of years are needed to make the evolution theory look good. Without billions of years to hide in, the theory looks absolutely ridiculous. The geologic column is where it all started. The earth was divided up into layers. Each layer was assigned a name, an age, and an index fossil. The ages were chosen without any scientific reasoning: